Coercive and Controlling

For years we have been arguing that the Courts, Police, CAFCASS and others recognise that men can be the victims of domestic violence. They can also be the victims of coercive and controlling behaviour.

There are myths spoken about men. Some believe that they are responsible for the vast majority of domestic violence. It is true that a lot of the prosecutions are of men with women being the largest number of victims-but that statistic arises out of reports of domestic violence and arrests for domestic violence. Men tend not to allege domestic violence against their partner. In divorce cases we see men denied contact with their children or the contact is very strictly controlled and often the Courts go along with this on the basis that the man has agreed. Often his agreement is extracted through coercion-“if you don’t agree to this you will not see them at all. If you argue about this you will not see them at all.” At the same time the woman has alleged domestic violence or serious sexual assault-maybe even reported the man to the Police or threatened to call the Police on the basis of some trumped up allegation. Unfortunately, too often, the Police go along with this and interview the man-therefore he knows or believes that any wrong move by him in the future will have consequences. He is being controlled.

The Police, Police and Crime Commissioners and some politicians talk about domestic violence where “he” is the perpetrator and “she” is the victim. Always. Clearly there are incidents. Clearly these must be investigated. The problem is that this is not done with an open mind or based upon an understanding of how men deal with domestic violence and being coerced and controlled.

The Guidance from the Government on Controlling and Coercive behaviour is gender neutral however our experience is that the enforcement of the law is biased against men.

All we are asking for is for those involved in Family cases and in investigating and prosecuting such cases to challenge their own preconceptions and to avoid being part of the problem.

Male victims of domestic and partner abuse 30 key facts

February 2017-Produced by Mark Brooks, ManKind Initiative (Sources can be found at the end of the document)

(1) 13.6% of men in 15/16 (13.2% in 14/15) state they have been a victim of domestic abuse since they were 16 (26.3% of women in 15/16, 27.1% in 14/15). For every three victims of domestic abuse, two will be female, one will be male. These figures are the equivalent of 2.2 million male victims and 4.3 million female victims. One in four women and one in six men suffer from domestic abuse in their lifetime.

(2) 4.4% of men in 15/16 (4% in 14/15) and 7.7% of women (8.2% women) stated that they have experienced domestic abuse in 2015/16, equivalent to an estimated 716,000 male victims and 1.27 million female victims. For every three victims of domestic abuse, two will be female, one will be male.

The difference between the prevalence of domestic abuse for men and women is at its lowest since the year ending March 2005. The 3.3 percentage point difference between men and women in the year ending March 2016 compares with a peak difference of 5.1 percentage points in the year ending March 2010.

(3) 8.8% of men (equivalent to 1.4 million men) and 20.1% of women (3.3 million women) have experienced partner abuse (non sexual) since the age of 16.

(4) In 15/16, 2.8% of men (equivalent to 451,000) and 5.8% of women (equivalent to 891,000 million) experienced partner abuse (non sexual). For every three victims of partner abuse, two will be female and one will be male.

(5) There has been a significant fall in partner abuse for both men and women over the past 12 years. The percentage of men stating they experienced partner abuse in 04/05 was 4.6% (752,000) and in 15/16, it was 2.8% (451,000). For

women, the fall was from 8.6% (1.333 million) to 5.8% (891,000). There has also been a fall in domestic abuse with 6.5% of men (1 million) and 11.1% of women (1.7 million) being victims of domestic abuse in 2004/05 and 4.4% (716,000) and 7.7% for men (716,000) and women (1.27 million) in 2015/16.

(6) In 14/15, 2.7% of men (450,000) and 4.6% of women (759,000) experienced stalking. For every three victims of stalking, two will be female and one will be male. This ratio is the same when accounting for stalking by partners.

(7) In 15/16, 0.9% of men and 1.7% of women were victims of force at the hands of their partner.

(8) Generally, younger people are more likely to be a victim of partner abuse and stalking than those in older age groups. In 15/16, 3% men (5.1% women) aged 1619, and, 3% of 20-24 (5.8% women) were victims of partner abuse. 4.2% of men aged 16-19 (9.7% women) and 4.1% aged 20-24 (6.6% women) respectively were victims of stalking. The one anomaly is 45-54 year old men where 3.2% said they were a victim of partner abuse.

(9) Men who are separated or divorced are more likely to suffer partner abuse than those who are married. 10.8% of separated men (16.0% women) and 10.6% (15.3% women) of divorced men, suffered partner abuse in 15/16 while only 1.8% of married men and 2.7% of married women did so.

(10) For men in management, 2.2% said they suffered from partner abuse in 15/16 as id 3.2% in manual/routine occupations and 3.9% of men who had never worked/long-term unemployed. The female equivalent statistics were 4.2%, 7.3% and 5.4%.

(11) Men (5.3%) with a long-term illness or disability were victims of partner abuse in 15/16 compared to women (10.9%) in the same situation. For those with no longterm illness or disabilities, the figures are 2.4% (4.4% women).

(12) Of those that suffered partner abuse in 14/15, a higher proportion of men suffered from force (37%) than women (29%). For emotional and psychological abuse the proportions were 61% and 63% respectively.

(13) 12% of men and 15% of women who were victims of partner abuse suffered three or more incidents in 14/15. 1% of men had suffered 50 or more incidents as had 2% of female victims.

(14) Of those that suffered from partner abuse in 12/13, 29% of men and 23% of women suffered a physical injury, a higher proportion of men suffering severe bruising or bleeding (6%) and internal injuries or broken bones/teeth (2%) than women (4% and 1% respectively). 30% of men who suffer partner abuse have emotional and mental problems (47% women). Only 27% of men sought medical advice whilst 73% of women did.

(15) Male victims (39%) are over three times as likely than women (12%) not to tell anyone about the partner abuse they are suffering from. Only 10% of male victims will tell the police (26% women), only 23% will tell a person in an official position (43% women) and only 11% (23% women) will tell a health professional.

(16) The number of women convicted of perpetrating domestic abuse has increased seven fold since 04/05. From 806 in 04/05 to 5,641 in 15/16.

(17) The percentage of gay or bi-sexual men (6.2%) who suffered partner abuse in 2008/09 is nearly double the number for heterosexual men (3.3%). Lesbian women (12.4%) as a percentage also suffered far more partner abuse compared to heterosexual women (4.3%).

(18) In 15/16, 28 men died at the hands of their partner or ex-partner (19 men in 14/15) compared to 77 women (83 in 2014/054). For men, this was the highest since 08/09.

Offences currently recorded as homicide for victims aged 16 and over by relationship of victim to principal suspect and sex of victim, numbers, year ending March 2006 to year ending March 20161 England and Wales

05/06 06/07 ’07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12 12/13 13/14 14/15 15/16
Numbers Male victims Partner/expartner 23 29 30 32 19 20 18 16 25 19 28

Female victims Partner/expartner 90 90 80 102 94 98 89 78 86 83 77

(19) One in every five victims of forced marriage is a man (20%). (20) The average male victim calling the ManKind Initiative helpline is 43, is 5ft 9in tall and weighs 13st. The average female perpetrator is 40, is 5ft 4in tall and weighs 10st 7lb.

(21) 23 organisations offer refuge or safe house provision for male victims in the UK – a total of 110 spaces, of which 34 are dedicated to male victims only (the rest being for victims of either gender). There has been an increase as in February 2016, the figures were 18 organisations with c70 spaces, of which 24 were dedicated to male DV victims only. There are no refuge or safe houses in London.

There are no precise figures for female victims, albeit an estimate in 2010 was that there were nearly 400 specialist domestic violence organisations providing refuge accommodation for women in the UK with c4,000 spaces for over 7,000 women and children.

(22) On at least 120 occasions in 2010 a caller decided not to consider a refuge or safe house because they were too far away and would mean having to completely uproot their lives, often having to leave their children and their job behind.

(23) The NSPCC reported that 18% of boys and 25% of girls had been victims of physical violence at the hands of their girlfriend or boyfriend. 4% of boys had been victims of severe physical violence (11% of girls).

(24) In 13/14, on average high-risk victims live with domestic abuse for 2.6 years before getting help. 80% of the men who call the ManKind Initiative helpline have never spoken to anyone before about the abuse they are suffering.

(25) Men don’t leave abusive relationships for various reasons – the top reasons being: concern about the children (89%), marriage for life (81%), love (71%), the fear of never seeing their children again (68%), a belief she will change (56%), not enough money(53%), nowhere to go (52%), embarrassment (52%), not wanting to take kids away from their mother (46%), threats that she will kill herself (28%) and fears she will kill him (24%).

(26) Young women in a student survey are just as likely to be aggressive towards their partners as men, possibly even more.

(27) In 2015, 119,000 men reported to English and Welsh police forces stating they were a victim of domestic abuse. 22% of all victims who report to the police are male. In 2012, 73,524 men did.

(28) One in four victims of revenge rn are male

(29) As reported by the Scottish Government, 6.6% of male victims of partner abuse are victims at the hands of men as they are in a same-sex relationship. In terms of reporting to Scottish police, one in ten men who report as being a victim of domestic abuse state that the perpetrator is also a man. In Scotland, 20% of victims who report to the police in Scotland are male, 2% of victims are men who are victims at the hands of other men.

(30) There are c175 organisations providing services to male victims in February 2017, In 2012, the figure was c70.

30 Key Facts: Sources

ONS figures are for men and women aged 16-59 in England and Wales

The key report is: Office for National Statistics (British Crime Survey) – Focus on violent crime and sexual offences, England and Wales: year ending Mar 2016: http://bit.ly/2kqolyb The data tables can be found here: http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(1) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb

(2) Table 4.01 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(3) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb Table 4.01 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(4) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb Table 4.02 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(5) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb Table 4.01 and 4.03 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(6) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb

Table 4.04 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(7) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb Table 4.01, 4.03 and 4.07 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(8) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb Table 4.01 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(9) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb Table 4.10 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(10) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb Table 4.10 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(11) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb Table 4.10 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(12) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb Table 4.10 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(12) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2014/15 http://bit.ly/1p8CGl0 Table 4.13 on Appendix Table: http://bit.ly/1M1diC5

(13) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2014/15 http://bit.ly/1p8CGl0 Table 4.15 on Appendix Table: http://bit.ly/1M1diC5

(14) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2014/15 http://bit.ly/1p8CGl0 Table 4.17 on Appendix Table: http://bit.ly/1M1diC5

(15) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2014/15 http://bit.ly/1p8CGl0 Table 4.28 on Appendix Table: http://bit.ly/1M1diC5

(16) Parliamentary questions (2004-2008) http://bit.ly/1zE1IdH , CPS FOI requests (2008-2015) and Parliamentary question (2016)

(17) British Crime Survey 2008/09 Table 3.07 (page 76) – http://tinyurl.com/7u7nvm4

(18) ONS BCS Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences 2015/16 http://bit.ly/2kqolyb Table 2.06 on http://bit.ly/2l4azUK

(19) Source: Forced Marriage Unit, Home Office: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/505827/Forced_Marr iage_Unit_statistics_2015.pdf

(20) The ManKind Initiative help-line survey 2009

(21) The ManKind Initiative (February 2017) and estimates via Women’s Aid/Refuge and government reports (2010)

(22) The ManKind Initiative

(23) Partner exploitation and violence in teenage intimate relationships 2009: https://www.nspcc.org.uk/globalassets/documents/research-reports/partner-exploitation-violenceteenage-intimate-relationships-report.pdf

(24) Safe Lives. 2015. Getting it right first time: Ending Domestic Violence. 24Th February. Available at: http://www.safelives.org.uk/sites/default/files/resources/Getting%20it%20right%20first%20time%20 -%20complete%20report.pdf and ManKind Initiative Helpline (2015)

(25) Hines and Douglas in Graham – Kevan. Pp. 14

(26) Bates, Elisabeth, A; Graham – Kevan, Dr Nicola; Archer, John. 2013. Testing Predictions From the Male Control Theory of Men’s Partner Violence. Aggressive Behaviour. Vol. 9999. Pp. 1 – 14.

(27) FOI requests to 43 police forces (Ian McNicholl, The ManKind Initiative)

(28) https://www.gov.uk/government/news/hundreds-of-victims-of-revenge-porn-seek-support-fromhelpline

(29) Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15: Partner Abuse (Figure 3.3 page 38) – http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/05/2505/downloads and Domestic Abuse recorded by the police in Scotland, 2015-16 (page 3) http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/10/2442/downloads

(30) The ManKind Initiative

Produced by Mark Brooks (February 2017) © The ManKind Initiative

One thought on “Coercive and Controlling

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

w

Connecting to %s